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Atopijski dermatitis

Atopijski dermatitis nije novost u povijesti čovječanstva, no izraziti porast broja oboljelih, pogotovo u modernim društvima, predstavlja veliki izazov za medicinu. Mnoga pitanja i kontroverze niču više no što nalazimo odgovora. Što je uzrok tom porastu u zadnjim desetljećima? Postoji li uopće trajno izlječenje ili ne? Kako razviti nove lijekove koji će proširiti vrlo uzak spektar farmakoterapije ove bolesti?

Više: Atopijski dermatitis

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Crni kim

Nigella sativa L. Ranunculaceae

engl. black cumin, black carraway; fr. cumin noir, nigelle noire, nigelle des jardins, herbe aux épices, poivrette; njem. Schwarzkümmel, schwarzer Kreuzkümmel, schwarzer römischer Koriander

kalonji (Hindi/Urdu), habbat al-barakah (arapski), siyah dane (perzijski)

 

BOTANIČKI PODACI

Postoje dosta konfuzija oko hrvatskog naziva. Naziv crni kim ili crni kumin prevedeni su iz drugih jezika, ali uobičajeni u marketingu. Pravi naziv je crnjika ili crnika (Domac, Gelenčir, Schlosser, Ortiz). Katkad se brka s biljkom kim (Carum carvi L, Apiaceae) i kumin (Cuminum cyminum L., Apiaceae).

 

OFICINALNI DIJELOVI BILJKE

Sjemenke.

 

KEMIJSKI SASTAV (AKTIVNE TVARI)

Sjemenke sadrže 30-35% biljnog ulja. Najzastupljenija masna kiselina je linolna kiselina, potom oleinska i palmitinska kiselina. Ipak, karakteristična masna kiselina roda Nigella je dihomolinolna kiselina (11,14-cis, cis eikozadienska kiselina) (Aizetmuller et all, Oléagienux, Corps Gras, Lipides, vol 4 No 5, 1997). Ove kiseline ima 2-5% i mogla bi služiti kao karakteristična kiselina za otkrivanje patvorina, no zanimljivo, većina proizvođača ne navodi ovu masnu kiselinu. Jedna od karakteristika je i znatno veći sadržaj ove 20:2 masne kiseline u odnosu na 20:1 masne kiseline, što je tipično za rod Nigella. Sadržaj ?-linolenske kiseline je znatno manji od onog u noćurku (0,1-1%). Sadržaj tokoferola je 170mg/kg. Ono što čini crni kim ljekovitim je sadržaj eteričnog ulja u biljnom ulju. U sjemenkama ga bude 0,4-2,5%, a karakterističan ljekoviti spoj je timokinon. Još niti približno ne postoji norma koja propisuje minimalni sadržaj timokinona u ulju, stoga je ovo ulje, bez jasnog normiranja karakterističnih masnih kiselina i timokinona, često i patvoreno. Sama ljutina ulja proporcionalna je sadržaju eteričnog ulja, a varijacije njegovog sadržaja odgovorna su za varijacije okusa i ljekovitosti ovisno o proizvođaču i proizvodnim lotovima.

Droga sadrži i oko 20% proteina, 32-37% polisaharida i minerale, ali su te tvari obično odsutne ili se nalaze u tragovima u biljnom ulju. U literaturi se često spominje i prisustvo "nigelona", koji je vjerojatno produkt oligomerizacije timokinona. Prisutni su i alkaloid nigelin, te izokinolinski alkaloidi nigelicin i nigelimin-N-oksid.

 

INDIKACIJE/DJELOVANJE

ESCOP i Komisija E ne navode djelovanja.

U praksi, ulje crnog kima uglavnom se koristi za Th2 upalne bolesti, poput alergijskog rinitisa, astme i atopijskog dermatitisa. Klinički je ispitano kod astme i alergijskog rinitisa, ali trebat će još kliničkih studija koje bi  dodatno potkrijepile ove indikacije.

U tradicionalnoj medicini današnjeg islamskog svijeta crni kim je svelijek, vjerojatno i zbog mnogobrojnih bioloških efekata timokinona. Klinički je ispitan i kod dijabetesa tip II, hipertenzije te epilpepsije, no trenutno se na temelju tih studija ne može odobriti njegova upotreba kao monoterapije kod tih indikacija.

 

TIPOVI EKSTRAKATA

Biljno ulje sjemenki. Rjeđe eterično ulje (otopljeno u biljnom ulju). Vodeni ekstrakti sjemenki.

 

POSOLOGIJA

Uobičajeno prodavano u kapsulama od 500mg, oko ulja crnog kima ne postoji konsenzus oko doze. ESCOP i Komisija E, zbog recentnosti istraživanja, ne navode crni kim kao ljekovitu drogu. Najkorisniji podatak dolazi iz kliničke studije iz 2003. godine (Kalus et all, vidi reference), u kojoj je korišteno 40-80mg/kg/danu, što bi značilo da je dnevna doza za prosječnu odraslu osobu 2,8-5,6 g dnevno, uz potrebnu korekciju doze prema težini. Time zahtjev za dnevnom dozom čini 500mg kapsule nezgodnim za uzimanje (i preko 10 kapsula dnevno).

Odsustvo standardizacije na timokinone čini ovu posologiju još nepreciznijom. U praksi, najčešće se daje doza od 1-2 čajne žličice biljnog ulja 2x dnevno iza obroka.

U kliničkim istraživanjima su korišteni i vodeni ekstrakti biljke (5-15mL), ali u zapadnom svijetu oni nisu uobičajeni.

 

KONTRAINDIKACIJE

Nisu poznate. Opisani su slučajevi trovanja u slučaju inestija vrlo velikih doza i alergijskih reakcija na topikalne pripravke, stoga ga treba izbjegavati kod ljudi alergičnih na crni kim.

 

INTERAKCIJE S LIJEKOVIMA

Nepoznate.

 

OSOBNA ISKUSTVENA PRAKSA

Nadam se da crni kim neće postati žrtva marketinških patologija. Nekoliko godina se intenzivno reklamira, a razni brandovi bore se za primat na tržištu, tvrdeći kako je upravo njihovo ulje najbolje, "jedino djelotovorno", "originalno egipatsko", a paradoksalno znaju biti iz istog izvora. I sintetski i prirodni lijekovi davno su pali kao žrtve modernog marketinga koji je samom sebi svrha, a već za godinu ili dvije marketinški gurui pronaći će neki "novi" svelijek pokraden iz riznica tradicionalne fitoterapije. Ne moram naglašavati da iza tih kampanja uglavnom ne stoje stručni ljudi, niti oni kojima je doista stalo do ljudskog zdravlja. Postoje i ogromne razlike u cijeni između različitih brandova, a ta cijena uglavnom nije opravdana razlikom u kvaliteti.

Glavni fokus i dalje ostaju Th2 (alergijske) bolesti, pogotovo u svjetlu eksplozije tih bolesti u modernoj civilizaciji. Postoji ogromna diskrepancija u broju objavljenih predkliničkih radova i kliničkih ispitivanja. Reklamiran kao lijek za "rak", crni kim se oslanja na poveliki broj in vitro i in vivo podataka različite metodologije i kvalitete, uz gotovo potpuno odsustvo kliničkih ispitivanja. Crni kim je postao i moda u znanosti, pa se intenzivnije proučava tek zadnjih desetak godina. Nadam se da će budućnost donijeti više kliničkih potvrda djelotvornosti.

U praksi najčešće ga preporučam upravo za navedene Th2 bolesti, katkad kao monoterapiju, katkad u kombinaciji ovisno o tegobi (list crnog ribiza i pycnogenol kod alergijskog rinitisa i astme, ulje boražine kod atopijskog dermatitisa), te druge mjere koje prate te bolesti. Dobar je dodatak kod infekcija poput bakterijskih cistitisa, respiratornih infekcija i infekcija s Helicobacter pylori, ali uz druge antibakterijske prirodne tvari, poput mravinca. Uobičajena doza za odrasle je dvije žličice 2x dnevno.

Mala je nezgoda crnog kima njegov ljuto-aromatično okus. On se najlakše prikriva prirodnim slatkim sirupima poput sirupa agave. Rijetko se zamijete nuspojave, poput mučnine kod ljudi s aktivnim gastritisom. One su tranzijentne i uglavnom zahtijevaju privremeno smanjivanje doze (1 čajna žličica 2-3x dnevno). Kod nekih osoba javi se i pojačanje apetita, što ne čudi ako znamo da je crni kim stomahik (zato i postoji kao začin).

Postoji dvojba oko upotrebe ulja crnog kima dermalnim putem. Nerazrijeđeno ulje crnog kima zna izvati iritacije kože (pogotovo lica), a zna i pojačati simptome atopijskog dermatitisa nakon aplikacije ulja dermalnim putem.

Crni kim iznimno često propisujem, ali vjerojatno upravo zbog učestalosti Th2 bolesti. Osobno mu proričem dobru budućnost, čak i ako se marketing dosjeti nekog novog hita za eksploataciju. Treba imati na umu kako niti jedan lijek nije svelijek, pogotovo kod tako serioznih indikacija kao što su zloćudni tumori.

Napomena: Ulje crnog kima više različitih proizvođača možete kupiti u Terra Organica web shopu! Klikni: ulje crnog kima

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REFERENCE

REVIEW

Herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis: the use of Nigella sativa. Nikakhlagh S, Rahim F, Aryani FH, Syahpoush A, Brougerdnya MG, Saki N. Am J Otolaryngol. 2010 Oct 12.

Review on molecular and therapeutic potential of thymoquinone in cancer. Banerjee S, Padhye S, Azmi A, Wang Z, Philip PA, Kucuk O, Sarkar FH, Mohammad RM. Nutr Cancer. 2010 Oct;62(7):938-46.

Nigella sativa: reduces the risk of various maladies. Butt MS, Sultan MT. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010 Aug;50(7):654-65.

The protective effect of thymoquinone, an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, against renal injury: a review. Ragheb A, Attia A, Eldin WS, Elbarbry F, Gazarin S, Shoker A. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2009 Sep;20(5):741-52.

Nigella sativa seeds: folklore treatment in modern day medicine. Tariq M. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jul;14(3):105-6.

Emerging clinical and therapeutic applications of Nigella sativa in gastroenterology. Kapoor S. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 May 7;15(17):2170-1.

Anti-cancer properties of Nigella spp. essential oils and their major constituents, thymoquinone and beta-elemene. Edris AE. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2009 Jan;4(1):43-6.

From here to eternity - the secret of Pharaohs: Therapeutic potential of black cumin seeds and beyond. Padhye S, Banerjee S, Ahmad A, Mohammad R, Sarkar FH. Cancer Ther. 2008;6(b):495-510.

Chemical composition and medicinal properties of Nigella sativa Linn. Khan MA. Inflammopharmacology. 1999;7(1):15-35.

Immunomodulatory and therapeutic properties of the Nigella sativa L. seed. Salem ML. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Dec;5(13-14):1749-70.

Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Ali BH, Blunden G. Phytother Res. 2003 Apr;17(4):299-305.

 

KLINIČKA ISPITIVANJA

The effect of thymoquinone on intractable pediatric seizures (pilot study). Akhondian J, Kianifar H, Raoofziaee M, Moayedpour A, Toosi MB, Khajedaluee M. Epilepsy Res. 2011 Jan;93(1):39-43. Epub 2010 Nov 26.

Comparative study of Nigella Sativa and triple therapy in eradication of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Salem EM, Yar T, Bamosa AO, Al-Quorain A, Yasawy MI, Alsulaiman RM, Randhawa MA. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jul-Sep;16(3):207-14.

Potential adjuvant effects of Nigella sativa seeds to improve specific immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis patients. Işik H, Cevikbaş A, Gürer US, Kiran B, Uresin Y, Rayaman P, Rayaman E, Gürbüz B, Büyüköztürk S. Med Princ Pract. 2010;19(3):206-11. Epub 2010 Mar 29.

Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Boskabady MH, Mohsenpoor N, Takaloo L. Phytomedicine. 2010 Aug;17(10):707-13. Epub 2010 Feb 10.

Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Qidwai W, Hamza HB, Qureshi R, Gilani A. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Jun;15(6):639-44.

A new and novel treatment of opioid dependence: Nigella sativa 500 mg. Sangi S, Ahmed SP, Channa MA, Ashfaq M, Mastoi SM. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008 Apr-Jun;20(2):118-24.

The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests on chemical war victims: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Boskabady MH, Farhadi J. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Nov;14(9):1137-44.

Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension. Dehkordi FR, Kamkhah AF. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Aug;22(4):447-52.

Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract. Dirjomuljono M, Kristyono I, Tjandrawinata RR, Nofiarny D. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Jun;46(6):295-306.

Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of insulin resistance syndrome. Najmi A, Nasiruddin M, Khan RA, Haque SF. Int J Diabetes Dev Ctries. 2008 Jan;28(1):11-4.

The effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seed) on intractable pediatric seizures. Akhondian J, Parsa A, Rakhshande H. Med Sci Monit. 2007 Dec;13(12):CR555-9.

The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients. Boskabady MH, Javan H, Sajady M, Rakhshandeh H. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Oct;21(5):559-66. Erratum in: Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Feb;22(1):105.

Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Kalus U, Pruss A, Bystron J, Jurecka M, Smekalova A, Lichius JJ, Kiesewetter H. Phytother Res. 2003 Dec;17(10):1209-14.

 

 

PREDKLINIČKA ISPITIVANJA

Potential immunomodulation effect of the extract of Nigella sativa on ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs. Boskabady MH, Keyhanmanesh R, Khameneh S, Doostdar Y, Khakzad MR. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2011 Mar.;12(3):201-209.

"Blockade of Nitric Oxide Overproduction and Oxidative Stress by Nigella Sativa Oil Attenuates Morphine-Induced Tolerance" by Abdel-Zaher et al. Mauro D, Procopio L. Neurochem Res. 2011 Feb 18.

In vitro antifungal effect of black cumin seed quinones against dairy spoilage yeasts at different acidity levels. Halamova K, Kokoska L, Flesar J, Sklenickova O, Svobodova B, Marsik P. J Food Prot. 2010 Dec;73(12):2291-5.

Thymoquinone suppresses growth and induces apoptosis via generation of reactive oxygen species in primary effusion lymphoma. Hussain AR, Ahmed M, Ahmed S, Manogaran P, Platanias LC, Alvi SN, Al-Kuraya KS, Uddin S. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 Jan 4.

Antimalarial and antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds (black cumin) in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelli nigeriensis. Okeola VO, Adaramoye OA, Nneji CM, Falade CO, Farombi EO, Ademowo OG. Parasitol Res. 2010 Dec 14.

Antineoplastic Effects of Bee Honey and Nigella sativa on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells. Hassan MI, Mabrouk GM, Shehata HH, Aboelhussein MM. Integr Cancer Ther. 2010 Dec 14.

The protective effect of thymoquinone against sepsis syndrome morbidity and mortality in mice. Alkharfy KM, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Alokail MS. Int Immunopharmacol. 2011 Feb;11(2):250-4. Epub 2010 Dec 9.

Thymoquinone inhibits matrix metalloproteinase expression in rabbit chondrocytes and cartilage in experimental osteoarthritis. Chen WP, Tang JL, Bao JP, Wu LD. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Dec;235(12):1425-31.

Effect of thymoquinone on the lung pathology and cytokine levels of ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. Keyhanmanesh R, Boskabady MH, Khamneh S, Doostar Y. Pharmacol Rep. 2010 Sep-Oct;62(5):910-6.

The effects of Nigella sativa against oxidative injury in a rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Erşahin M, Toklu HZ, Akakin D, Yuksel M, Yegen BC, Sener G. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011 Feb;153(2):333-41. Epub 2010 Nov 12.

Amelioration of tamoxifen-induced liver injury in rats by grape seed extract, black seed extract and curcumin. El-Beshbishy HA, Mohamadin AM, Nagy AA, Abdel-Naim AB. Indian J Exp Biol. 2010 Mar;48(3):280-8.

Thymoquinone up-regulates PTEN expression and induces apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells. Arafa el-SA, Zhu Q, Shah ZI, Wani G, Barakat BM, Racoma I, El-Mahdy MA, Wani AA. Mutat Res. 2011 Jan 10;706(1-2):28-35. Epub 2010 Oct 30.

Thymoquinone attenuates diethylnitrosamine induction of hepatic carcinogenesis through antioxidant signaling: Sayed-Ahmed MM, Aleisa AM, Al-Rejaie SS, Al-Yahya AA, Al-Shabanah OA, Hafez MM, Nagi MN. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2010 Jul 1;3(4):254-261.

Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Nagi MN, Al-Shabanah OA, Hafez MM, Sayed-Ahmed MM. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2010 Oct 18.

Effects of Nigella sativa and thymoquinone on biochemical and subcellular changes in pancreatic ß-cells of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Abdelmeguid NE, Fakhoury R, Kamal SM, Al Wafai RJ. J Diabetes. 2010 Dec;2(4):256-66.

Thymoquinone inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis and chemosensitizes human multiple myeloma cells through suppression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation pathway. Li F, Rajendran P, Sethi G. Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Oct;161(3):541-54.

Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of thymoquinone against rheumatoid arthritis. Vaillancourt F, Silva P, Shi Q, Fahmi H, Fernandes JC, Benderdour M. J Cell Biochem. 2011 Jan;112(1):107-17.

The possible effect of diets containing Nigella sativa and Thymus vulgaris on blood parameters and some organs structure in rabbit. Tousson E, El-Moghazy M, El-Atrsh E. Toxicol Ind Health. 2011 Mar;27(2):107-16. Epub 2010 Sep 7.

Protective effects of thymoquinone against methotrexate-induced testicular injury. Gökçe A, Oktar S, Koc A, Yonden Z. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010 Sep 2.

Down-regulation of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase PDE1A is the key event of p73 and UHRF1 deregulation in thymoquinone-induced acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell apoptosis. Abusnina A, Alhosin M, Keravis T, Muller CD, Fuhrmann G, Bronner C, Lugnier C. Cell Signal. 2011 Jan;23(1):152-60. Epub 2010 Aug 31.

Efficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male. Datau EA, Wardhana, Surachmanto EE, Pandelaki K, Langi JA, Fias. Acta Med Indones. 2010 Jul;42(3):130-4.

Thymoquinone induces telomere shortening, DNA damage and apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. Gurung RL, Lim SN, Khaw AK, Soon JF, Shenoy K, Mohamed Ali S, Jayapal M, Sethu S, Baskar R, Hande MP. PLoS One. 2010 Aug 12;5(8):e12124.

Protection against radiation-induced oxidative damage by an ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. Rastogi L, Feroz S, Pandey BN, Jagtap A, Mishra KP. Int J Radiat Biol. 2010 Sep;86(9):719-31.

Protective Effects of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Oil on TNBS-Induced Experimental Colitis in Rats. Isik F, Tunali Akbay T, Yarat A, Genc Z, Pisiriciler R, Caliskan-Ak E, Cetinel S, Altintas A, Sener G. Dig Dis Sci. 2011 Mar;56(3):721-30. Epub 2010 Jul 24.

Analgesic effect of Nigella sativa seeds extract on experimentally induced pain in albino mice. Bashir MU, Qureshi HJ. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2010 Jul;20(7):464-7.

Nigella sativa L. seed extract modulates the neurotransmitter amino acids release in cultured neurons in vitro. El-Naggar T, Gómez-Serranillos MP, Palomino OM, Arce C, Carretero ME. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2010;2010:398312. Epub 2010 Jun 16.

Nigella sativa modulates splenocyte proliferation, Th1/Th2 cytokine profile, macrophage function and NK anti-tumor activity. Majdalawieh AF, Hmaidan R, Carr RI. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Sep 15;131(2):268-75. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Thymoquinone and cisplatin as a therapeutic combination in lung cancer: In vitro and in vivo. Jafri SH, Glass J, Shi R, Zhang S, Prince M, Kleiner-Hancock H. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Jul 1;29:87.

Combinatorial effects of thymoquinone on the anti-cancer activity of doxorubicin. Effenberger-Neidnicht K, Schobert R. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2010 Jun 26.

Blockade of nitric oxide overproduction and oxidative stress by Nigella sativa oil attenuates morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice. Abdel-Zaher AO, Abdel-Rahman MS, ELwasei FM. Neurochem Res. 2010 Oct;35(10):1557-65. Epub 2010 Jun 15.

Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine. Ahmed el-HM, Nour BY, Mohammed YG, Khalid HS. Environ Health Insights. 2010 Feb 4;4:1-6.

Studies on molecular mechanisms of growth inhibitory effects of thymoquinone against prostate cancer cells: role of reactive oxygen species. Koka PS, Mondal D, Schultz M, Abdel-Mageed AB, Agrawal KC. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2010 Jun;235(6):751-60.

Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of three herbal plants growing in Egypt. Ghonime M, Eldomany R, Abdelaziz A, Soliman H. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2011 Mar;33(1):141-5. Epub 2010 May 27.

The effect of fixed oil and water extracts of Nigella sativa on sickle cells: an in vitro study. Ibraheem NK, Ahmed JH, Hassan MK. Singapore Med J. 2010 Mar;51(3):230-4.

Effects of thymoquinone in the expression of mucin 4 in pancreatic cancer cells: implications for the development of novel cancer therapies. Torres MP, Ponnusamy MP, Chakraborty S, Smith LM, Das S, Arafat HA, Batra SK. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010 May;9(5):1419-31. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Protective effects of propolis and thymoquinone on development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Nader MA, el-Agamy DS, Suddek GM. Arch Pharm Res. 2010 Apr;33(4):637-43. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Structure-activity studies on therapeutic potential of Thymoquinone analogs in pancreatic cancer. Banerjee S, Azmi AS, Padhye S, Singh MW, Baruah JB, Philip PA, Sarkar FH, Mohammad RM. Pharm Res. 2010 Jun;27(6):1146-58. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Protective effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone against toxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide. Alenzi FQ, El-Bolkiny Yel-S, Salem ML. Br J Biomed Sci. 2010;67(1):20-8.

Thymoquinone supplementation ameliorates acute endotoxemia-induced liver dysfunction in rats. Helal GK. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2010 Apr;23(2):131-7.

Protective effects of Nigella sativa on intestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.Terzi A, Coban S, Yildiz F, Ates M, Bitiren M, Taskin A, Aksoy N. J Invest Surg. 2010 Feb;23(1):21-7.

Thymoquinone from nutraceutical black cumin oil activates Neu4 sialidase in live macrophage, dendritic, and normal and type I sialidosis human fibroblast cells via GPCR Galphai proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Finlay TM, Jayanth P, Amith SR, Gilmour A, Guzzo C, Gee K, Beyaert R, Szewczuk MR. Glycoconj J. 2010 Apr;27(3):329-48. Epub 2010 Mar 6.

Effect of black seed on dextromethorphan O- and N-demethylation in human liver microsomes and healthy human subjects. Al-Jenoobi FI, Al-Thukair AA, Abbas FA, Ansari MJ, Alkharfy KM, Al-Mohizea AM, Al-Suwayeh SA, Jamil S. Drug Metab Lett. 2010 Jan;4(1):51-5.

Thymoquinone, a potential therapeutic agent of Nigella sativa, binds to site I of human serum albumin. Lupidi G, Scire A, Camaioni E, Khalife KH, De Sanctis G, Tanfani F, Damiani E. Phytomedicine. 2010 Aug;17(10):714-20. Epub 2010 Feb 18.

Protective effects of Nigella sativa against ischemia-reperfusion injury of kidneys. Yildiz F, Coban S, Terzi A, Savas M, Bitiren M, Celik H, Aksoy N. Ren Fail. 2010 Jan;32(1):126-31.

Effect of thymoquinone on mouse dendritic cells. Xuan NT, Shumilina E, Qadri SM, Götz F, Lang F. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;25(2-3):307-14. Epub 2010 Jan 12.

Radioprotective effects of black seed (Nigella sativa) oil against hemopoietic damage and immunosuppression in gamma-irradiated rats. Assayed ME. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2010 Jun;32(2):284-96.

Protective effect of Nigella sativa extract and thymoquinone on serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells death. Mousavi SH, Tayarani-Najaran Z, Asghari M, Sadeghnia HR. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010 May;30(4):591-8. Epub 2010 Jan 7.

Protective effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: a light and electron microscopic study. Kanter M, Akpolat M, Aktas C. J Mol Histol. 2009 Oct;40(5-6):379-85. Epub 2010 Jan 5.

The effects of Nigella sativa on bile duct ligation induced-liver injury in rats. Coban S, Yildiz F, Terzi A, Al B, Aksoy N, Bitiren M, Celik H. Cell Biochem Funct. 2010 Jan;28(1):83-8.

Nigella sativa thymoquinone-rich fraction greatly improves plasma antioxidant capacity and expression of antioxidant genes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Ismail M, Al-Naqeep G, Chan KW. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010 Mar 1;48(5):664-72. Epub 2009 Dec 11.

Thymoquinone-induced relaxation of isolated rat pulmonary artery. Suddek GM. J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Feb 3;127(2):210-4. Epub 2009 Dec 2.

Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa. Shafi G, Munshi A, Hasan TN, Alshatwi AA, Jyothy A, Lei DK. Cancer Cell Int. 2009 Nov 27;9:29.

Beneficial effects of thymoquinone on hepatic key enzymes in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Pari L, Sankaranarayanan C. Life Sci. 2009 Dec 16;85(23-26):830-4. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Regulation of low-density lipoprotein receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase gene expression by thymoquinone-rich fraction and thymoquinone in HepG2 cells. Al-Naqeep G, Ismail M, Allaudin Z. J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics. 2009;2(4-5):163-72. Epub 2009 Oct 30.

Multiple molecular targets underlie the antidiabetic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in skeletal muscle, adipocyte and liver cells. Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Martineau LC, Vallerand D, Haddad Y, Afshar A, Settaf A, Haddad PS. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010 Feb;12(2):148-57. Epub 2009 Sep 25.

Anti-inflammatory effects of the Nigella sativa seed extract, thymoquinone, in pancreatic cancer cells. Chehl N, Chipitsyna G, Gong Q, Yeo CJ, Arafat HA. HPB (Oxford). 2009 Aug;11(5):373-81.

Effect of nigella (Nigella sativa L.) seeds on hematological parameters in rats. Kocyigit Y, Atamer Y, Uysal E, Baran MS. Saudi Med J. 2009 Sep;30(9):1233-5.

The effect of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds on human neutrophil functions. Kacem R, Meraihi Z. Nat Prod Res. 2009;23(13):1168-75.

The effect of thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs. Keyhanmanesh R, Boskabady MH, Eslamizadeh MJ, Khamneh S, Ebrahimi MA. Planta Med. 2010 Feb;76(3):218-22. Epub 2009 Aug 26.

Safety assessment of black cumin fixed and essential oil in normal Sprague Dawley rats: Serological and hematological indices. Tauseef Sultan M, Butt MS, Anjum FM. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Nov;47(11):2768-75. Epub 2009 Aug 21.

Effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone on oxidative stress and neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Hamdy NM, Taha RA. Pharmacology. 2009;84(3):127-34. Epub 2009 Aug 13.

The effect of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa L. on serum lipid profile in rats. Kocyigit Y, Atamer Y, Uysal E. Saudi Med J. 2009 Jul;30(7):893-6.

Anti bacterial activity of Nigella sativa against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hannan A, Saleem S, Chaudhary S, Barkaat M, Arshad MU. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008 Jul-Sep;20(3):72-4.

Gastroprotective effect of an aqueous suspension of black cumin Nigella sativa on necrotizing agents-induced gastric injury in experimental animals. Al Mofleh IA, Alhaider AA, Mossa JS, Al-Sohaibani MO, Al-Yahya MA, Rafatullah S, Shaik SA. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jul;14(3):128-34.

Antitumor activity of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin is augmented by thymoquinone in pancreatic cancer. Banerjee S, Kaseb AO, Wang Z, Kong D, Mohammad M, Padhye S, Sarkar FH, Mohammad RM. Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 1;69(13):5575-83. Epub 2009 Jun 23.

Effects of two-months Nigella sativa supplementation on cardiac hemodynamics and adrenergic responsiveness. Al-Hariri MT, Yar T, Bamosa AO, El-Bahai MN. J Pak Med Assoc. 2009 Jun;59(6):363-8.

Effects of Nigella sativa seed extract on ameliorating lung tissue damage in rats after experimental pulmonary aspirations. Kanter M. Acta Histochem. 2009;111(5):393-403. Epub 2009 May 9.

Protective effects of nigella sativa against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Yaman I, Balikci E. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2010 Mar;62(2):183-90. Epub 2009 Apr 23.

Therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa on chronic HAART-induced hyperinsulinemia in rats. Chandra S, Murthy SN, Mondal D, Agrawal KC. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009 Apr;87(4):300-9.

Amelioration of chronic relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (cr-eae) using thymoquinone - biomed 2009. Mohamed A, Waris HM, Ramadan H, Quereshi M, Kalra J. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2009;45:274-9.

Repeated administration of Nigella sativa decreases 5-HT turnover and produces anxiolytic effects in rats. Perveen T, Haider S, Kanwal S, Haleem DJ. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2009 Apr;22(2):139-44.

HIV-1 protease inhibitor induced oxidative stress in pancreatic beta-cells: protection with thymoquinone. [No authors listed] Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009 Apr;234(4):x.

Thymoquinone supplementation induces quinone reductase and glutathione transferase in mice liver: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. Nagi MN, Almakki HA. Phytother Res. 2009 Sep;23(9):1295-8.

Relaxant effects of different fractions from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). Boskabady MH, Keyhanmanesh R, Saadatloo MA. Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 Dec;46(12):805-10.

HIV-1 protease inhibitor induced oxidative stress suppresses glucose stimulated insulin release: protection with thymoquinone. Chandra S, Mondal D, Agrawal KC. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009 Apr;234(4):442-53. Epub 2009 Feb 20.

Protection by Nigella sativa against carbon tetrachloride-induced downregulation of hepatic cytochrome P450 isozymes in rats. Ibrahim ZS, Ishizuka M, Soliman M, ElBohi K, Sobhy W, Muzandu K, Elkattawy AM, Sakamoto KQ, Fujita S. Jpn J Vet Res. 2008 Nov;56(3):119-28.

Effects of thymoquinone and selenium on the proliferation of mg 63 cells in tissue culture. Barron J, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2008;44:434-40.

Effects of Nigella sativa supplementation for one month on cardiac reserve in rats. Yar T, El-Hariri M, El-Bahai MN, Bamosa AO. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008 Apr-Jun;52(2):141-8.

Thymoquinone protects dopaminergic neurons against MPP+ and rotenone. Radad K, Moldzio R, Taha M, Rausch WD. Phytother Res. 2009 May;23(5):696-700.

Nigella sativa inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and improves glucose tolerance in rats. Meddah B, Ducroc R, El Abbes Faouzi M, Eto B, Mahraoui L, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Martineau LC, Cherrah Y, Haddad PS. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):419-24. Epub 2008 Nov 17.

Black seed oil ameliorates allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting T-cell proliferation in rats. Shahzad M, Yang X, Raza Asim MB, Sun Q, Han Y, Zhang F, Cao Y, Lu S. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Feb;22(1):37-43. Epub 2008 Nov 27.

Effect of thymoquinone on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Hadjzadeh MA, Mohammadian N, Rahmani Z, Rassouli FB. Urol J. 2008 Summer;5(3):149-55.

Cardioprotective effects of Nigella sativa oil on cyclosporine A-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Ebru U, Burak U, Yusuf S, Reyhan B, Arif K, Faruk TH, Emin M, Aydin K, Atilla II, Semsettin S, Kemal E. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2008 Dec;103(6):574-80.

Nigella sativa relieves the deleterious effects of ischemia reperfusion injury on liver. Yildiz F, Coban S, Terzi A, Ates M, Aksoy N, Cakir H, Ocak AR, Bitiren M. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep 7;14(33):5204-9.

Thymoquinone inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth through suppressing AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Yi T, Cho SG, Yi Z, Pang X, Rodriguez M, Wang Y, Sethi G, Aggarwal BB, Liu M. Mol Cancer Ther. 2008 Jul;7(7):1789-96.

Role of Nigella sativa and a number of its antioxidant constituents towards azoxymethane-induced genotoxic effects and colon cancer in rats. Al-Johar D, Shinwari N, Arif J, Al-Sanea N, Jabbar AA, El-Sayed R, Mashhour A, Billedo G, El-Doush I, Al-Saleh I. Phytother Res. 2008 Oct;22(10):1311-23.

Targeting nuclear factor-kappa B activation pathway by thymoquinone: role in suppression of antiapoptotic gene products and enhancement of apoptosis. Sethi G, Ahn KS, Aggarwal BB. Mol Cancer Res. 2008 Jun;6(6):1059-70.

The protective effect of Nigella sativa on lung injury of sulfur mustard-exposed Guinea pigs. Hossein BM, Nasim V, Sediqa A. Exp Lung Res. 2008 May;34(4):183-94.

Protective effects of Nigella sativa on the neuronal injury in frontal cortex and brain stem after chronic toluene exposure. Kanter M. Neurochem Res. 2008 Nov;33(11):2241-9. Epub 2008 Apr 22.

Evaluation of the in vitro effect of Nigella sativa aqueous extract on Blastocystis hominis isolates. El Wakil SS. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2007 Dec;37(3):801-13.

The effect of antioxidant properties of aqueous garlic extract and Nigella sativa as anti-schistosomiasis agents in mice. El Shenawy NS, Soliman MF, Reyad SI. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2008 Jan-Feb;50(1):29-36.

Effects of borneol and thymoquinone on TNBS-induced colitis in mice. Juhás S, Cikos S, Czikková S, Veselá J, Il'ková G, Hájek T, Domaracká K, Domaracký M, Bujnáková D, Rehák P, Koppel J. Folia Biol (Praha). 2008;54(1):1-7.

Nigella sativa oil for prevention of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: an experimental model. Uz E, Bayrak O, Uz E, Kaya A, Bayrak R, Uz B, Turgut FH, Bavbek N, Kanbay M, Akcay A. Am J Nephrol. 2008;28(3):517-22. Epub 2008 Jan 25.

The effect of nigellone and thymoquinone on inhibiting trachea contraction and mucociliary clearance. Wienkötter N, Höpner D, Schütte U, Bauer K, Begrow F, El-Dakhakhny M, Verspohl EJ. Planta Med. 2008 Feb;74(2):105-8. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

Nigella sativa protects against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys. Bayrak O, Bavbek N, Karatas OF, Bayrak R, Catal F, Cimentepe E, Akbas A, Yildirim E, Unal D, Akcay A. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008 Jul;23(7):2206-12. Epub 2008 Jan 22.

Rat Plasma Oxidation Status After Nigella Sativa L. Botanical Treatment in CCL(4)-Treated Rats. Soleimani H, Ranjbar A, Baeeri M, Mohammadirad A, Khorasani R, Yasa N, Abdollahi M. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2008 Jan;18(9):725-31.

The effect of Nigella sativa oil against Aspiculuris tetraptera and Hymenolepis nana in naturally infected mice. Ayaz E, Yilmaz H, Ozbek H, Tas Z, Orunc O. Saudi Med J. 2007 Nov;28(11):1654-7.

Cardiac inotropic and hypertrophic effects of Nigella sativa supplementation in rats. El-Bahai MN, Al-Hariri MT, Yar T, Bamosa AO. Int J Cardiol. 2009 Jan 24;131(3):e115-7. Epub 2007 Nov 1.

Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone prevents hippocampal neurodegeneration after chronic toluene exposure in rats. Kanter M. Neurochem Res. 2008 Mar;33(3):579-88. Epub 2007 Oct 11.

Effect of thymoquinone on malformations and oxidative stress-induced diabetic mice. Al-Enazi MM. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Sep 15;10(18):3115-9.

Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against lead-induced hepatorenal damage in male rats. Farrag AR, Mahdy KA, Abdel Rahman GH, Osfor MM. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Sep 1;10(17):2809-16.

Effects of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on sciatic nerves in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Kanter M. Neurochem Res. 2008 Jan;33(1):87-96. Epub 2007 Aug 23.

Effects of Nigella sativa and human parathyroid hormone on bone mass and strength in diabetic rats. Altan MF. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007 Jun;116(3):321-8.

Ethanolic extract of nigella sativa L seeds on ethylene glycol-induced kidney calculi in rats. Hadjzadeh MA, Khoei A, Hadjzadeh Z, Parizady M. Urol J. 2007 Spring;4(2):86-90.

Androgen receptor and E2F-1 targeted thymoquinone therapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Kaseb AO, Chinnakannu K, Chen D, Sivanandam A, Tejwani S, Menon M, Dou QP, Reddy GP. Cancer Res. 2007 Aug 15;67(16):7782-8.

Thymoquinone decreases AGE-induced NF-kappaB activation in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Sayed AA, Morcos M. Phytother Res. 2007 Sep;21(9):898-9.

Anti-tumor properties of blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) extracts. Ait Mbarek L, Ait Mouse H, Elabbadi N, Bensalah M, Gamouh A, Aboufatima R, Benharref A, Chait A, Kamal M, Dalal A, Zyad A. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007 Jun;40(6):839-47.

Effects of thymoquinone (volatile oil of black cumin) on rheumatoid arthritis in rat models. Tekeoglu I, Dogan A, Ediz L, Budancamanak M, Demirel A. Phytother Res. 2007 Sep;21(9):895-7.

A comparison of 5-fluorouracil and natural chemotherapeutic agents, EGCG and thymoquinone, delivered by sustained drug delivery on colon cancer cells. Norwood AA, Tucci M, Benghuzzi H. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2007;43:272-7.

Thymoquinone supplementation prevents the development of gentamicin-induced acute renal toxicity in rats. Sayed-Ahmed MM, Nagi MN. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2007 May-Jun;34(5-6):399-405.

Analysis of cadmium and lead in mice organs: effect of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) on the distribution and immunosuppressive effect of cadmium-lead mixture in mice. Massadeh AM, Al-Safi SA, Momani IF, Al-Mahmoud M, Alkofahi AS. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007 Feb;115(2):157-67.

Combination therapy of Nigella sativa and human parathyroid hormone on bone mass, biomechanical behavior and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Altan MF, Kanter M, Donmez S, Kartal ME, Buyukbas S. Acta Histochem. 2007;109(4):304-14. Epub 2007 Mar 28.

In vivo radioprotective effects of Nigella sativa L oil and reduced glutathione against irradiation-induced oxidative injury and number of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats. Cemek M, Enginar H, Karaca T, Unak P. Photochem Photobiol. 2006 Nov-Dec;82(6):1691-6.

Effects of aqueous extracts of medicinal plants on MNNG-treated rat hepatocytes in primary cultures. Khader M, Eckl PM, Bresgen N. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 May 30;112(1):199-202. Epub 2007 Jan 30.

Effect of thymoquinone and Nigella sativa seeds oil on lipid peroxidation level during global cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat hippocampus. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S, Asl MN, Sadeghnia HR, Ziaee T. Phytomedicine. 2007 Sep;14(9):621-7. Epub 2007 Feb 8.

Effect of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) and thymoquinone on blood glucose in albino rats. Hawsawi ZA, Ali BA, Bamosa AO. Ann Saudi Med. 2001 May-Jul;21(3-4):242-4.

Thymoquinone supplementation attenuates hypertension and renal damage in nitric oxide deficient hypertensive rats. Khattab MM, Nagi MN. Phytother Res. 2007 May;21(5):410-4.

Anticlastogenic activity of thymoquinone against benzo(a)pyrene in mice. Badary OA, Abd-Ellah MF, El-Mahdy MA, Salama SA, Hamada FM. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Jan;45(1):88-92. Epub 2006 Aug 30.

Biochemical effects of Nigella sativa L seeds in diabetic rats. Kaleem M, Kirmani D, Asif M, Ahmed Q, Bano B. Indian J Exp Biol. 2006 Sep;44(9):745-8.

Effects of thymoquinone (volatile oil of black cumin) on rheumatoid arthritis in rat models. Tekeoglu I, Dogan A, Demiralp L. Phytother Res. 2006 Oct;20(10):869-71.

Assessment of cellular responses to oxidative stress using MCF-7 breast cancer cells, black seed (N. Sativa L.) extracts and H2O2. Farah IO. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2005 Dec;2(3-4):411-9.

Comparison of potential chemotherapeutic agents, 5-fluoruracil, green tea, and thymoquinone on colon cancer cells. Norwood AA, Tan M, May M, Tucci M, Benghuzzi H. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2006;42:350-6.

Effect of thymoquinone on cyclooxygenase expression and prostaglandin production in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation. El Mezayen R, El Gazzar M, Nicolls MR, Marecki JC, Dreskin SC, Nomiyama H. Immunol Lett. 2006 Jul 15;106(1):72-81. Epub 2006 May 22.

Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on heart rate, some hematological values, and pancreatic beta-cell damage in cadmium-treated rats. Demir H, Kanter M, Coskun O, Uz YH, Koc A, Yildiz A. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 May;110(2):151-62.

Effect of dexamethasone and Nigella sativa on peripheral blood eosinophil count, IgG1 and IgG2a, cytokine profiles and lung inflammation in murine model of allergic asthma. Abbas AT, Abdel-Aziz MM, Zalata KR, Abd Al-Galel Tel-D. Egypt J Immunol. 2005;12(1):95-102.

Anti-inflammatory effect of thymoquinone in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. El Gazzar M, El Mezayen R, Marecki JC, Nicolls MR, Canastar A, Dreskin SC. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Jul;6(7):1135-42. Epub 2006 Mar 2.

A long-term investigation of the anti-hepatocarcinogenic potential of an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra. Iddamaldeniya SS, Thabrew MI, Wickramasinghe SM, Ratnatunge N, Thammitiyagodage MG. J Carcinog. 2006 May 9;5:11.

Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa on experimental spinal cord injury in rats. Kanter M, Coskun O, Kalayci M, Buyukbas S, Cagavi F. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2006 Mar;25(3):127-33.

Downregulation of leukotriene biosynthesis by thymoquinone attenuates airway inflammation in a mouse model of allergic asthma. El Gazzar M, El Mezayen R, Nicolls MR, Marecki JC, Dreskin SC. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Jul;1760(7):1088-95. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

Effects of essential oil extracted from Nigella sativa (L.) seeds and its main components on human neutrophil elastase activity. Kacem R, Meraihi Z. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2006 Apr;126(4):301-5.

Hepatoprotective effects of Nigella sativa L and Urtica dioica L on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and liver enzymes in carbon tetrachloride-treated rats. Kanter M, Coskun O, Budancamanak M. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov 14;11(42):6684-8.

Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Kanter M, Demir H, Karakaya C, Ozbek H. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov 14;11(42):6662-6.

Effects of aqueous and macerated extracts from Nigella sativa on guinea pig isolated heart activity. Boskabady MH, Shafei MN, Parsaee H. Pharmazie. 2005 Dec;60(12):943-8.

An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. Ghannadi A, Hajhashemi V, Jafarabadi H. J Med Food. 2005 Winter;8(4):488-93.

The biochemical and morphological alterations following administration of melatonin, retinoic acid and Nigella sativa in mammary carcinoma: an animal model. el-Aziz MA, Hassan HA, Mohamed MH, Meki AR, Abdel-Ghaffar SK, Hussein MR. Int J Exp Pathol. 2005 Dec;86(6):383-96.

Modes of action of alpha-hederin and thymoquinone, active constituents of Nigella sativa, against HEp-2 cancer cells. Rooney S, Ryan MF. Anticancer Res. 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6B):4255-9.

Effect of black cumin (Nigella sativa) on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the blood of rats. Kanter M, Coskun O, Gurel A. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Dec;107(3):277-87.

The antioxidative and antihistaminic effect of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Kanter M, Coskun O, Uysal H. Arch Toxicol. 2006 Apr;80(4):217-24.

The effect of Nigella sativa oil against experimental allergic encephalomyelitis via nitric oxide and other oxidative stress parameters. Ozugurlu F, Sahin S, Idiz N, Akyol O, Ilhan A, Yigitoglu R, Isik B. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2005 Sep 5;51(3):337-42.

Effects of alpha-hederin and thymoquinone, constituents of Nigella sativa, on human cancer cell lines. Rooney S, Ryan MF. Anticancer Res. 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2199-204.

In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses. Marsik P, Kokoska L, Landa P, Nepovim A, Soudek P, Vanek T. Planta Med. 2005 Aug;71(8):739-42.

Nigella sativa (black seed) oil does not affect the T-helper 1 and T-helper 2 type cytokine production from splenic mononuclear cells in allergen sensitized mice. Büyüköztürk S, Gelincik A, Ozşeker F, Genç S, Savran FO, Kiran B, Yillar G, Erden S, Aydin F, Colakoglu B, Dal M, Ozer H, Bilir A. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep 14;100(3):295-8.

Effect of Nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum cholesterol of albino rats. Dahri AH, Chandiol AM, Rahoo AA, Memon RA. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2005 Apr-Jun;17(2):72-4.

Effect of Nigella sativa and Allium cepa oils on Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected rats. Abu El Ezz NM. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2005 Aug;35(2):511-23.

Effect of aqueous extract from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig isolated heart. Shafei MN, Boskabady MH, Parsaee H. Indian J Exp Biol. 2005 Jul;43(7):635-9.

Cytotoxic effects of a decoction of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra on human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Thabrew MI, Mitry RR, Morsy MA, Hughes RD. Life Sci. 2005 Aug 5;77(12):1319-30.

Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Ilhan A, Gurel A, Armutcu F, Kamisli S, Iraz M. Neuropharmacology. 2005 Sep;49(4):456-64.

Antidermatophyte activity of ether extract of Nigella sativa and its active principle, thymoquinone. Aljabre SH, Randhawa MA, Akhtar N, Alakloby OM, Alqurashi AM, Aldossary A. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Oct 3;101(1-3):116-9.

Thymoquinone induces apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 and mitochondrial events in p53-null myeloblastic leukemia HL-60 cells. El-Mahdy MA, Zhu Q, Wang QE, Wani G, Wani AA. Int J Cancer. 2005 Nov 10;117(3):409-17.

Antioxidant property of Nigella sativa (black cumin) and Syzygium aromaticum (clove) in rats during aflatoxicosis. Abdel-Wahhab MA, Aly SE. J Appl Toxicol. 2005 May-Jun;25(3):218-23.

The effects of isolated antioxidants from black seed on the cellular metabolism of A549 cells. Farah N, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M, Cason Z. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2005;41:211-6.

In vitro induction of endothelial cell fibrinolytic alterations by Nigella sativa. Awad EM, Binder BR. Phytomedicine. 2005 Mar;12(3):194-202.

Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S, Nassiri-Asl M, Mansouri MT. Med Sci Monit. 2005 Apr;11(4):BR106-10. Epub 2005 Mar 24.

Inhibition of two stage renal carcinogenesis, oxidative damage and hyperproliferative response by Nigella sativa. Khan N, Sultana S. Eur J Cancer Prev. 2005 Apr;14(2):159-68.

In vitro decreases of the fibrinolytic potential of cultured human fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080, by Nigella sativa oil. Awad EM. Phytomedicine. 2005 Jan;12(1-2):100-7.

Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene C4 synthase in human blood cells by thymoquinone. Mansour M, Tornhamre S. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2004 Oct;19(5):431-6.

Nigella sativa seed extracts enhance glucose-induced insulin release from rat-isolated Langerhans islets. Rchid H, Chevassus H, Nmila R, Guiral C, Petit P, Chokairi M, Sauvaire Y. Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;18(5):525-9.

Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Gali-Muhtasib H, Diab-Assaf M, Boltze C, Al-Hmaira J, Hartig R, Roessner A, Schneider-Stock R. Int J Oncol. 2004 Oct;25(4):857-66.

The petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa exerts lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions in the rat. Le PM, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Elimadi A, Settaf A, Cherrah Y, Haddad PS. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Oct;94(2-3):251-9.

Effects of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Kanter M, Coskun O, Korkmaz A, Oter S. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2004 Jul;279(1):685-91.

Mechanisms of the hypoglycaemic and immunopotentiating effects of Nigella sativa L. oil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters. Fararh KM, Atoji Y, Shimizu Y, Shiina T, Nikami H, Takewaki T. Res Vet Sci. 2004 Oct;77(2):123-9.

Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties of Nigella sativa. Islam SN, Begum P, Ahsan T, Huque S, Ahsan M. Phytother Res. 2004 May;18(5):395-8.

Protective effects of selected medicinal plants against protein degradation, lipid peroxidation and deformability loss of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes. Suboh SM, Bilto YY, Aburjai TA. Phytother Res. 2004 Apr;18(4):280-4.

The effect of Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Ali BH. Am J Chin Med. 2004;32(1):49-55.

Effects of sustained delivery of thymoqiunone on bone healing of male rats. Kirui PK, Cameron J, Benghuzzi HA, Tucci M, Patel R, Adah F, Russell G. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2004;40:111-6.

Black cumin seed essential oil, as a potent analgesic and antiinflammatory drug. Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Jafarabadi H. Phytother Res. 2004 Mar;18(3):195-9.

Possible mechanism(s) for relaxant effect of aqueous and macerated extracts from Nigella sativa on tracheal chains of guinea pig. Boskabady MH, Shirmohammadi B, Jandaghi P, Kiani S. BMC Pharmacol. 2004 Feb 25;4:3.

Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Hosseinzadeh H, Parvardeh S. Phytomedicine. 2004 Jan;11(1):56-64.

Thymoquinone and Nigella sativa oil protection against methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. El-Saleh SC, Al-Sagair OA, Al-Khalaf MI. Int J Cardiol. 2004 Jan;93(1):19-23.

Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on selected mineral status and hematological values in CCl4-treated rats. Meral I, Kanter M. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2003 Winter;96(1-3):263-70.

Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Al-Ghamdi MS. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(5):721-8.

Partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Kanter M, Meral I, Yener Z, Ozbek H, Demir H. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2003 Dec;201(4):213-9.

Protection against diethylnitrosoamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis by an indigenous medicine comprised of Nigella sativa, Hemidesmus indicus and Smilax glabra: a preliminary study. Iddamaldeniya SS, Wickramasinghe N, Thabrew I, Ratnatunge N, Thammitiyagodage MG. J Carcinog. 2003 Oct 18;2(1):6.

Effects of Nigella sativa L. and Urtica dioica L. on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzyme systems and some liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats. Kanter M, Meral I, Dede S, Gunduz H, Cemek M, Ozbek H, Uygan I. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003 Jun;50(5):264-8. Erratum in: J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003 Sep;50(7):383.

The role of Urtica dioica and Nigella sativa in the prevention of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Türkdogan MK, Ozbek H, Yener Z, Tuncer I, Uygan I, Ceylan E. Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):942-6.

The in vitro effect of aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds on nitric oxide production. Mahmood MS, Gilani AH, Khwaja A, Rashid A, Ashfaq MK. Phytother Res. 2003 Sep;17(8):921-4.

Neuropharmacological activity of Nigella sativa L. extracts. Al-Naggar TB, Gómez-Serranillos MP, Carretero ME, Villar AM. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Sep;88(1):63-8.

Thymoquinone-induced relaxation of guinea-pig isolated trachea. Al-Majed AA, Daba MH, Asiri YA, Al-Shabanah OA, Mostafa AA, El-Kashef HA. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2001;110(5-6):333-45.

Chemopreventive potential of volatile oil from black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds against rat colon carcinogenesis. Salim EI, Fukushima S. Nutr Cancer. 2003;45(2):195-202.

Effects of volatile oil constituents of Nigella sativa on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: evidence for antioxidant effects of thymoquinone. Mansour MA, Ginawi OT, El-Hadiyah T, El-Khatib AS, Al-Shabanah OA, Al-Sawaf HA. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2001;110(3-4):239-51.

Nigella sativa (black cumin) ameliorates potassium bromate-induced early events of carcinogenesis: diminution of oxidative stress. Khan N, Sharma S, Sultana S. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2003 Apr;22(4):193-203.

The role of black seed in the proliferation and biochemical marker levels of Hep-2 cells. Hansen JT, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M, Cason Z. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:371-6.

Delayed apoptosis upon the treatment of Hep-2 cells with black seed. Corder C, Benghuzzi H, Tucci M, Cason Z. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:365-70.

Effect of Nigella sativa (N. sativa L.) and oxidative stress on the survival pattern of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Farah IO, Begum RA. Biomed Sci Instrum. 2003;39:359-64.

Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa oil and its constituent, thymoquinone, against gastric mucosal injury induced by ischaemia/reperfusion in rats. El-Abhar HS, Abdallah DM, Saleh S. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Feb;84(2-3):251-8.

The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Khan MA, Ashfaq MK, Zuberi HS, Mahmood MS, Gilani AH. Phytother Res. 2003 Feb;17(2):183-6.

Effect of Nigella sativa on blood hemostatic function in rats. Al-Jishi SA, Abuo Hozaifa B. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Mar;85(1):7-14.

Isulinotropic properties of Nigella sativa oil in Streptozotocin plus Nicotinamide diabetic hamster. Fararh KM, Atoji Y, Shimizu Y, Takewaki T. Res Vet Sci. 2002 Dec;73(3):279-82.

Thymoquinone suppresses expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat macrophages. El-Mahmoudy A, Matsuyama H, Borgan MA, Shimizu Y, El-Sayed MG, Minamoto N, Takewaki T. Int Immunopharmacol. 2002 Oct;2(11):1603-11.

Serum trace elements status of rabbits supplemented with Nigella sativa, vitamins C and E, and selenium against damage by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Gündüz H, Dede S, Agaoglu ZT, Atasoy N, Mert N. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2002 Oct;89(1):65-73.

Inhibition of methylnitrosourea (MNU) induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis by orally administered bee honey and Nigella grains in Sprague Dawely rats. Mabrouk GM, Moselhy SS, Zohny SF, Ali EM, Helal TE, Amin AA, Khalifa AA. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Sep;21(3):341-6.

Estrogenic activity of Nigella damascena extracts, evaluated using a recombinant yeast screen. Agradi E, Fico G, Cillo F, Francisci C, Tome F. Phytother Res. 2002 Aug;16(5):414-6.

Nigella sativa oil, nigellone and derived thymoquinone inhibit synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rats. El-Dakhakhny M, Madi NJ, Lembert N, Ammon HP. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jul;81(2):161-4.

The hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa oil is mediated by extrapancreatic actions. El-Dakhakhny M, Mady N, Lembert N, Ammon HP. Planta Med. 2002 May;68(5):465-6.

Cytogenetic studies on Nigella sativa seeds extract and thymoquinone on mouse cells infected with schistosomiasis using karyotyping. Aboul-Ela EI. Mutat Res. 2002 Apr 26;516(1-2):11-7.

Effect of Nigella sativa on glucose concentration, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant defence system and liver damage in experimentally-induced diabetic rabbits. Meral I, Yener Z, Kahraman T, Mert N. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2001 Dec;48(10):593-9.

Effects of Nigella sativa fixed oil on blood homeostasis in rat. Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Alaoui K, Mahassine N, Amarouch H, Hassar M. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jan;79(1):23-6.

The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice. Mahmoud MR, El-Abhar HS, Saleh S. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Jan;79(1):1-11.

Inhibitory effects of thymoquinone against 20-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma tumorigenesis. Badary OA, Gamal El-Din AM. Cancer Detect Prev. 2001;25(4):362-8.

Estrogenic activity of phenolic compounds from Nigella damascena evaluated using a recombinant yeast screen. Agradi E, Fico G, Cillo F, Francisci C, Tome F. Planta Med. 2001 Aug;67(6):553-5.

Bronchodilator, spasmolytic and calcium antagonist activities of Nigella sativa seeds (Kalonji): a traditional herbal product with multiple medicinal uses. Gilani AH, Aziz N, Khurram IM, Chaudhary KS, Iqbal A. J Pak Med Assoc. 2001 Mar;51(3):115-20.

The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of Nigella sativa. Al-Ghamdi MS. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Jun;76(1):45-8.

The role of antioxidant vitamins (C and E), selenium and Nigella sativa in the prevention of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in rabbits: new hopes. Türkdogan MK, Agaoglu Z, Yener Z, Sekeroglu R, Akkan HA, Avci ME. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2001 Feb;108(2):71-3.

Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. Enomoto S, Asano R, Iwahori Y, Narui T, Okada Y, Singab AN, Okuyama T. Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Mar;24(3):307-10.

The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Badary OA, Abdel-Naim AB, Abdel-Wahab MH, Hamada FM. Toxicology. 2000 Mar 7;143(3):219-26.

Nigella sativa L. oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. el-Dakhakhny M, Mady NI, Halim MA. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000 Sep;50(9):832-6.

Antimicrobial effect of crude extracts of Nigella sativa on multiple antibiotics-resistant bacteria. Morsi NM. Acta Microbiol Pol. 2000;49(1):63-74.

[Diuretic and hypotensive effects of Nigella sativa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat]. Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Lacaille-Dubois MA, Settaf A, Amarouch H, Hassar M. Therapie. 2000 May-Jun;55(3):379-82.

Effects of Nigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol induced ulcer in rats. El-Dakhakhny M, Barakat M, El-Halim MA, Aly SM. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Sep;72(1-2):299-304.

Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Burits M, Bucar F. Phytother Res. 2000 Aug;14(5):323-8.

Antinociceptive effects of Nigella sativa oil and its major component, thymoquinone, in mice. Abdel-Fattah AM, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Jul 14;400(1):89-97.

Protective effect of black seed oil from Nigella sativa against murine cytomegalovirus infection. Salem ML, Hossain MS. Int J Immunopharmacol. 2000 Sep;22(9):729-40.

Cytotoxic and immunopotentiating effects of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa L. seeds. Swamy SM, Tan BK. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Apr;70(1):1-7.

Thymoquinone attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice. Badary OA. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Nov 1;67(2):135-42.

Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. Badary OA, Al-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN, Al-Rikabi AC, Elmazar MM. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1999 Oct;8(5):435-40.

Immunomodulatory effect of Nigella sativa proteins fractionated by ion exchange chromatography. Haq A, Lobo PI, Al-Tufail M, Rama NR, Al-Sedairy ST. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1999 Apr;21(4):283-95.

Thymoquinone protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism. Nagi MN, Alam K, Badary OA, al-Shabanah OA, al-Sawaf HA, al-Bekairi AM. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1999 Jan;47(1):153-9.

The in vitro anti-tumor activity of some crude and purified components of blackseed, Nigella sativa L. Worthen DR, Ghosheh OA, Crooks PA. Anticancer Res. 1998 May-Jun;18(3A):1527-32.

Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Daba MH, Abdel-Rahman MS. Toxicol Lett. 1998 Mar 16;95(1):23-9.

Protective effect of cysteine and vitamin E, Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in rats. el Daly ES. J Pharm Belg. 1998 Mar-Apr;53(2):87-93; discussion 93-5.

Effects of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. Aqel M, Shaheen R. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 May;52(1):23-6.

Nigella sativa: effect on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity. Haq A, Abdullatif M, Lobo PI, Khabar KS, Sheth KV, al-Sedairy ST. Immunopharmacology. 1995 Aug;30(2):147-55.

Fixed oil of Nigella sativa and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B, Hoult JR. Planta Med. 1995 Feb;61(1):33-6.

Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Nigella sativa in rats. Keshri G, Singh MM, Lakshmi V, Kamboj VP. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1995 Jan;39(1):59-62.

The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. el Tahir KE, Ashour MM, al-Harbi MM. Gen Pharmacol. 1993 Sep;24(5):1123-31.

Antitumour principles from Nigella sativa seeds. Salomi NJ, Nair SC, Jayawardhanan KK, Varghese CD, Panikkar KR. Cancer Lett. 1992 Mar 31;63(1):41-6.

The effect of a plants mixture extract on liver gluconeogenesis in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. al-Awadi F, Fatania H, Shamte U. Diabetes Res. 1991 Dec;18(4):163-8.

Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). Hanafy MS, Hatem ME. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Sep;34(2-3):275-8.

Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children. Akhtar MS, Riffat S. J Pak Med Assoc. 1991 Aug;41(8):185-7.

Modulatory effects of Crocus sativus and Nigella sativa extracts on cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice. Nair SC, Salomi MJ, Panikkar B, Panikkar KR. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Jan;31(1):75-83.

Inhibitory effects of Nigella sativa and saffron (Crocus sativus) on chemical carcinogenesis in mice. Salomi MJ, Nair SC, Panikkar KR. Nutr Cancer. 1991;16(1):67-72.

Antifungal activities of the oils of Nigella sativa seeds. Islam SK, Ahsan M, Hassan CM, Malek MA. Pak J Pharm Sci. 1989 Jan;2(1):25-8.

Antimicrobial & anthelmintic activities of the essential oil of Nigella sativa Linn. Agarwal R, Kharya MD, Shrivastava R. Indian J Exp Biol. 1979 Nov;17(11):1264-5.

Antimicrobial activity of the volatile oil of Nigella sativa Linneaus seeds. Toama MA, El-Alfy TS, El-Fatatry HM. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1974 Aug;6(2):225-6.

Galactogogue action of Nigella sativa. Agrawala IP, Achar MV, Tamankar BP. Indian J Med Sci. 1971 Aug;25(8):535-7.

Studies on the Egyptian Nigella sativa L. IV. Some pharmacological properties of the seeds' active principle in comparison to its dihydro compound and its polymer. el-Dakhakhny M. Arzneimittelforschung. 1965 Oct;15(10):1227-9.

The antibacterial properties of the Nigella sativa l. seeds. Active principle with some clinical applications. Toppozada HH, Mazloum HA, el-Dakhakhny M. J Egypt Med Assoc. 1965;48:Suppl:187-202.

 

TOKSIČNOST/INTERAKCIJE

Oral and intraperitoneal LD50 of thymoquinone, an active principle of Nigella sativa, in mice and rats. Al-Ali A, Alkhawajah AA, Randhawa MA, Shaikh NA. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2008 Apr-Jun;20(2):25-7.

In vitro toxicological properties of thymoquinone. Khader M, Bresgen N, Eckl PM. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Jan;47(1):129-33. Epub 2008 Oct 29.

An investigation on LD50 and subacute hepatic toxicity of Nigella sativa seed extracts in mice. Vahdati-Mashhadian N, Rakhshandeh H, Omidi A. Pharmazie. 2005 Jul;60(7):544-7.

Allergic contact dermatitis from black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil-containing ointment. Zedlitz S, Kaufmann R, Boehncke WH. Contact Dermatitis. 2002 Mar;46(3):188.

Acute and chronic toxicity of Nigella sativa fixed oil. Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Mahassini N, Alaoui K, Amarouch H, Hassar M. Phytomedicine. 2002 Jan;9(1):69-74.

Allergic contact dermatitis from black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil after topical use. Steinmann A, Schätzle M, Agathos M, Breit R. Contact Dermatitis. 1997 May;36(5):268-9.

Possible hepatotoxicity of Nigella sativa seeds and Dregea volubilis leaves. Tennekoon KH, Jeevathayaparan S, Kurukulasooriya AP, Karunanayake EH. J Ethnopharmacol. 1991 Mar;31(3):283-9.

[Fatal poisoning by Nigella seed]. DUTHU P, TEMPEL, RODIER J. Maroc Med. 1954 Jan;33(344):20-2.

 

Napisao: dr.sc. Stribor Marković, mr.pharm., fitoaromaterapeut

Izvor: Centar Cedrus